a. Investigation on the production system efficiency of precision farming in comparison with conventional system (Farmers practice) in malligai (Jasminum sambac Ait.)
Precision production technology was standardized for Jasminum sambac. Use of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (60:120:120 g NPK/plant/year) along with Humic acid 0.4% and Panchagavya 3% spray recorded higher yield (10.14 t/ha) and BCR (2.77) when compared to conventional system (7.49 t/ha and 1.91 respectively).
b. Standardization of techniques for off season flowering in malligai (Jasminum sambac Ait.)through physiological intervention under open conditions
Off season flowering in J.sambac in open field condition was induced by pruning the plant during last week of September along with foliar spray of 1000 ppm CCC and 0.4% Humic acid. This has induced early flowering, extended duration of flowering and higher yield (1.14 kg/ plant/year) against 0.51 kg/plant/year in control.
c. Standardization of techniques for off season flowering in the three commercial Jasminum sp. under protected culture
d) Comparison of conventional planting system with paired row planting system in malligai (Jasminum sambac Ait.)
Paired row planting system was compared with conventional planting system in Jasminum sambac. The treatment with spacing of 1.0 x 1.0m / 1.5m recorded highest yield of 9.65 t/ha when compared to conventional system 7.82 t/ha.
7) Comparative study on performance of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) under steel frame (medium cost) and wooden frame (low cost) polyhouses
The performance of carnation var. Dona (Pink) tested under steel frame (medium cost) structure proved best in terms of durability, percent disease incidence, plant height (80.50 cm) with more number of laterals (10 flower stems/plant/year) when compared to wooden frame (low cost) structure (72.00cm & 8 flower stems/plant/year respectively).
8) Standardization of precision production technologies for carnation
8a) Standardization of fumigation techniques for protected carnation cultivation
Fumigation technique for protected carnation cultivation was standardized. The technique involves soil application of Dazomet @ 30g/m2 at a depth of 15 cm. Dazomet proved to be the best fumigant under polyhouse for which a calendar of application was prepared.
8b) Optimization of growing media consortia for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)
Optimized growing media consortia containing 30 kg/m2 (10:1:1) of (FYM 25kg: Vermicompost 2.5kg : Cocopeat 2.5 kg) along with biofertilizers viz., Azospirullum, Phosphobacteria, VAM and bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens each @ 20 g/m2 at monthly intervals for better performance of yield and quality of flowers.
8c) Optimization of planting density in carnation
The planting density of 15 x 15cm @ 25 plants/m2 was best in terms of quality of flowers with the highest value (96.5%) of ‘A’ grade flowers when compared to other treatments.
8d) Optimization of planting stage in carnation
In carnation, planting stage and pinching level of 30cm old rooted cuttings + single pinching in the 5th nodal point was found to be optimum in terms of more number of laterals/ plant with 6.20 flower stems/ plant during 1st flush, 9.15 during 2nd flush and 5.40 during 3rd flush with a total of 20.75 flower stems/ plant in three flushes of flowering.
9) Development of techniques to manage calyx splitting in carnation
A technique to manage calyx splitting in carnation was developed. The technique is foliar application of 0.1% borax at fortnightly intervals till bud initiation and then at weekly intervals. This experiment recorded minimum incidence of calyx split (3.13%) compared to control (32.63%).
10) Standardization of methods to manage major pests in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)
10a) Standardization of methods to manage mites (Tetranychus urticae) in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)
A method to manage red spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in carnation was standardized. The method is need based application of Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.05%. This proved to be the best in management of red spider mites. Per cent red spider mite population in this treatment was minimum (6.13%) against the untreated control (50.11%).
10b) Standardization of methods to manage thrips (Thrips tabaci) in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)
Application of Fipronil 5SC @ 1.5ml/lit which is an easily biodegradable pesticide with less residual effect reduced the incidence of thrips to 3.05% when compared to untreated control (91.33%).
11) Standardization of techniques for management of major diseases in carnation
11a) Standardization of techniques for management of fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi) in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)
Eco-friendly technique for management of fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. dianthi) in carnation was developed. Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 25 g/m2 at the time of planting and foliar application of P. fluorescens @ 0.5% at monthly intervals after planting recorded lower per cent disease infestation of 18.7% against the control (37.7%).
11b) Standardization of techniques for management of leaf spot (Alternari dianthi) in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)
Soil application of Bacillus subtilis 25 g/m2 followed by foliar application of B. subtilis at 0.5% on 30 days after first treatment at monthly intervals recorded less disease incidence of 23.29 PDI followed by soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens 25 g/m2 and by foliar application of P. fluorescens at 0.5% on 30 days after first treatment at monthly intervals (27.03 PDI) as compared with untreated control (54.73 PDI).